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2017年职称英语《理工类》考前强化练习题3_职称英语考试

来源:等距原则网   时间: 2018-06-01

LED Lighting

  An accidental discovery announced recently has taken LED lighting to a new level, suggesting it could soon offer a cheaper, longer-lasting alternative to the traditional light bulb. The breakthrough adds to a growing trend that is likely to eventually make Thomas Edison’s bright invention1 obsolete. LEDs are already used in traffic lights, flashlights, and architectural lighting. They are flexible and operate less expensively than traditional lighting.

  Michael Bowers, a graduate student at Vanderbilt University, was just trying to make really small quantum dots, which are crystals generally only a few nanometers big. Quantum dots contain anywhere from 100 to 1,000 electrons. They’re easily excited bundles of energy, and the smaller they are, the more excited they get. Each dot in Bower’s particular batch was exceptionally small, containing only 33 or 34 pairs of atoms.

  When you shine a light on quantum dots or apply electricity to them, they react by producing their own light, normally a bright, vibrant color. But when Bowers shined a laser on his batch of dots, something unexpected happened. He was surprised when a white glow covered the table. The quantum dots were supposed to emit blue light4, but instead they were giving off a beautiful white glow.

  Then Bowers and another student got the idea to stir the dots into polyurethane and coat a blue LED light bulb with the mix. The lumpy bulb wasn’t pretty, but it produced white light similar to a regular light bulb.

  LEDs produce twice as much light as a regular 60 watt bulb and burn for over 50.000 hours. The Department

  of Energy estimates LED lighting could reduce U. S. energy consumption for lighting by 29 percent by 2025. LEDs don’t emit heat, so they’re also more energy efficient. And they’re much harder to break.

  Quantum dot mixtures could be painted on just about anything and electrically excited to produce a rainbow of colors t including white. The main light source of the future will almost surely not be a bulb. It might be a table, a wall, or even a fork.

  23. Paragraph 1_____

  24. Paragraph 3_____

  25. Paragraph 5_____

  26. Paragraph 6_____

  A. LED Lighting Is Not Mature

  B. LED Lighting Will Replace Traditional Lighting

  C. Almost Everything Could Be the Main Light Source in the Future

  D. LED Lighting Has Many Advantages

  E. Bowers Made an Unexpected Discovery

  F. LED Light Bulbs Look Lumpy

  27. Unlike traditional lighting, LEDs do not give out heat so_____.

  28. Edison’s bright invention is likely to be outdated because_____.

  29. Something unexpected happened during Bower’s experiment when_____.

  30. Over one quarter of energy consumption for lighting could be saved by 2025 if .

  A. traditional lighting is less durable and dearer

  B. a laser excited the quantum dots

  C. America adopted LEDs

  D. graduate students work hard

  E. quantum dot mixtures are magic

  F. it is more efficient

  参考答案:23-30BED CFABC

  6. We will take your recent illness into consideration when marking your exams.

  A. effect

  B. account

  C. effort

  D. discount

  7. There are a limited number of books on this subject in the library.

  A. small

  B. total

  C. good

  D. great

  8. The chairman proposed that we should stop the meeting.

  A. showed

  B. suggested

  C. agreed

  D. believed

  9. Mary has blended the ingredients.

  A. made

  B. mixed

  C. cooked

  D. eaten

  10. They agreed to modify their policy.

  A. clarify

  B. define

  C. change

  D. develop

  11. The dentist has decided to extract her bad tooth.

  A. take out

  B. break off

  C. push in

  D. dig up

  12. The economy continued to exhibit signs of decline in September.

  A. play

  B. show

  C. send

  D. tell

  13. This table is strong and durable.

  A. long-lasting

  B. extensive

  C. far-reaching

  D. eternal

  14. He endured great pain before he finally expired.

  A. fired

  B. resigned

  C. died

  D. retreated

  15. The girl is gazing at herself in the mirror.

  A. smiling

  B. laughing

  C. shouting

  D. staring

  第2部分:阅读判断.下面的短文后列出了7个句子,请根据短文的内容对每个句子做出判断:如果该句提供的是正确信息,请选择A;如果该句提供的是错误信息,请选择B;如果该句的信息文中没有提及,请选择C。

  Irradiating Food

  Irradiating fruits, vegetables, pork and chicken to kill insects and bacteria has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration over the past decade or so. Irradiation of other meats, such as beef and lamb, is being reviewed. Federal approval does not require that industry adopt the process, and few food processors presently offer irradiated products.

  Market studies have shown that many consumers are afraid that eating irradiated foods may cause cancer, despite scientific studies that prove the safety of treated foods. Some people argue that more severe government inspection, higher food-safety standards, and more careful-preparation practices by consumers are all that is needed to ensure that food is safe. Consequently, companies currently see no need to spend millions of dollars outfitting processing plants with the equipment necessary for a process that very few shoppers are in favor of.

  All supermarkets that sell irradiated food must label the food either directly on the packaging, or, in the case of bulk items like fruits and vegetables, by placing a sign nearby. There is no requirement for the labeling of irradiated food served by chain restaurants or hospitals that buy directly from distributors, nor any regulations for products that contain irradiated ingredients.

  Presently, the FDA allows food to be treated with three types of radiation -- gamma rays, high-energy electrons, and X rays -- and sets limits on doses, depending on the type of food. The principle is that the dose to be used for a certain type of food should not exceed the amount that is sufficient to kill most harmful insects and bacteria present in it. Different types of food, because of their molecular compositions, may require different doses of radiation.

  1. According to the passage, killing insects and bacteria present in foods by irradiating is not completely approved by the US government.

  A. Right B. Wrong C. Not mentioned

  2. There are quite a number of food processors which are interested in producing irritated foods.

  A. Right B. Wrong C. Not mentioned

  3. Some consumers are doubtful of the safety of irradiated foods and suggest a more severe government inspection be taken.

  A. Right B. Wrong C. Not mentioned

  4. Some companies foresee the promising future of setting up food processing factories, although they do not see the need now.

  A. Right B. Wrong C. Not mentioned

  5. It is required that labels placed on irradiated food or nearby bulk items such as vegetables and fruits should indicate irradiated ingredients.

  A. Right B. Wrong C. Not mentioned

  6. Restaurants can serve irradiated food bought directly from distributors without labeling it.

  A. Right B. Wrong C. Not mentioned

  7. The passage tells us that FDA approves irradi张家口哪家医院看羊癫疯ating food to some extent but irradiated food is not widely accepted.

  A. Right B. Wrong C. Not mentioned

  概括大意

  Architecture

  Architecture is to building as literature is to the printed word. The best buildings are often so well constructed that they outlast their original use. They then survive not only as beautiful objects, but as documents of the history of cultures. These achievements are never wholly the work of individuals. Architecture is a social art.

  The renaissance brought about an entirely new age, not only in philosophy and literature but in the visual arts as well. In architecture, the principles and styles of ancient Greece and Rome were brought back to life and reinterpreted. They remain dominant until the 20th century.

  Many kinds of stone are used as building materials. Stone and marble were chosen for important monuments because they are not burnable and can be expected to endure. Stone architecture was often blended with stone sculpture. The use of stone has declined, however, because a number of other materials are more adaptable to industrial use.

  The complexity of modern life calls for a variety of building. More people live in mass housing and go to work in large office buildings; they spend their income in large shopping centers, send their children to many different kinds of schools, and when they are sick they go to specialized hospitals and clinics. All theses different types of buildings accumulated experiences needed by their designers.

  By the middle of the 20th century, modern architecture, which was influenced by new technology and mass production, was dealing with increasingly complex social needs. Important characteristics of modern architectural works are expanses of glass and the use of reinforced concrete. Advances in elevator technology, air conditioning, and electric lighting have all had important effects.

  练习:

  1. Paragraph 2_____________.

  2. Paragraph 3_____________.

  3. Paragraph 4_____________.

  4. Paragraph 5_____________.

  A Building materials

  B Need of greater building varieties in modern life

  C Restoration of ancient civilizations

  D Evolution in style

  E factors affecting modern architecture

  F A social art

  5.Some buildings ar

  e so well constructed that they are not only useful______.

  6.Ancient Greek and Roman architectural styles, which were restored during renaissance, were still influential _____.

  7. As modern life becomes more complex, people have to put up many different kinds of buildings _____.

  8. The use of new building materials and the introduction of such new technology as the elevator and the air-conditioner have played an important role ______.

  A to meet their needs

  B but also beautiful to look at

  C in the development of modern architecture

  D to design more buildings

  E even in the 20th century

  F to outlast their original use

  阅读理解

  Who (Doesn’t) Let the Dogs Bark?

  For the past year,Cornelia Czarnecki said,the barking of her neighbor’s German shepherdl has awakened her repeatedly at 4 a.m.The dog often barks for hours at a time,said Mrs.Czarnecki,a Clifton resident.

  “That dog is out there barking day and night,and we don’t know what to do anymore,”she said.

  Mrs.Czarnecki became so upset about the dog that she filed a municipal complaint3 against him under the town’s general noise ordinance.The case is set to be heard in municipal court on August 6.Complaints like the ones Mrs.Czarnecki lodged with the police4 and city officials led the Clifton City Council to draft an ordinance that could result in fines for residents whose dogs are “barking,howling,crying”or making any.other loud noises for more than 30 minutes in an hour.

  “I can’t wait,”Mrs.Czarnecki said.The council took up the ordinance for a first reading on Tuesday;a final vote is scheduled on August 8.

  “It’s a quality of life issue,”said Councilman Frank C.Fusco,who introduced the measure.Clifton is far from alone in seeking to silence noisy dogs.At least 144 of New Jersey’s municipalities have laws that address whining and barking5,according to a municipal ordinance database online at www.generalcode.com.

  In New York,at least 30 towns in Nassau and Suffolk Counties have similar laws,as do about 25 towns in Westchester County.Connecticut has a statewide law barring dogs that are a “nuisance”because of “excessive barking or other disturbance.”

  Many of the ordinances in the region are general prohibitions against excessive whining or barking.In Westchester,the City of New Rochelle ran into trouble with its law in 1997 after a resident challenged a citation.A city judge ruled that the ordinance was unconstitutionally vague6 because it did not include details about time of day and duration of barking,and the city changed the law in 1998.

  “Many of these ordinances go back to the 1800s,”said the New Rochelle corporation counsel,Bernis Shapiro.“They’re just carried forward and they don’t get changed until an issue comes up.”

  In May 2006,Hillsborough Township in Somerset County passed an ordinance to specifically address barking,but no complaints have been filed since then,said Lt.Bill Geary of the Hillsborough Police Department.Other New Jersey towns,including Bloomsbury in Hunterdon County and Manville in Somerset,considered such ordinances but withdrew them after residents complained that they would be unenforceable.

  As for those who contend that a barking dog should be a low priority,Councilman Fusco said,“If the dog was next to your house,you’d sing a different song.”

  Mr.Fusco said he was confident that the ordinance proposed in Clifton would be supported by his fellow council members.At the same time,he knows that some residents may object.

  But David Axelrod,a groomer at Furrs N Purrs on Valley Road,said he did not think the measure was tough enough.

  “Thirty minutes is extremely generous,”he said.“There is no reason why a dog should be barking that long.”

  The ordinance says barking must be sustained to be illegal,and it bans excessive barking only from 10 p.m.to 7 a.m.

  Under the ordinance,a resident complains to the City Health Department,which sends a warning note.If the barking continues,the resident takes the complaint to municipal court,where fines can start at $250.Before a court date,the city would most likely try to resolve the matter through mediation,said the city attorney,Matthew T.Priore.

  Last year about a dozen warning letters were sent to residents about their barking dogs,Clifton officials said.

  Currently,residents can complain about barking under the city’s general noise ordinance,but they have to essentially prosecute the case in municipal court themselves,Mr.Fusco said.Under the proposed ordinance,residents would appear as a witness in a case presented by the municipal prosecutor.

  “The new ordinance has some bite to it,”Mr.Fusco said.Eric M.Zwefiing,director of the Rutgers University Noise Technical Assistance Center,trains police officers on noise complaints and writes municipal noise codes.

  “One of the things I say to the officers I train is that if people were fundamentally civil to each other,we’d all be out of work,”he said.

  Mr.Zwerling,the owner of a chocolate Labrador named Bosco,said he had his own appreciation of the barking problem.

  “A dog is barking for one of two reasons--either it needs attention or it is try河南宁陵县人民医院癫痫科预约电话ing to alert you to something,”he said.“In either case,you should be attending to7 it.”

  词汇:

  municipal/mju:5nIsIpl/adj.市政的 ordinance/5C:dInEns/n.法令,训令,条例

  howl/haJl/vi.嚎叫,怒吼 municipality/mju:7nIsI5pAlItI/n.市政当局,自治市

  nuisance/5nju:s[ns/n.讨厌的人或东西 excessive/Ik5sesIv/adi.过多的

  prohibition/5prRsIkjU:t/n.禁止,阻止 counsel/5kaunsl/n.辩护律师

  prosecute/5prCsIkju:t/vt.起诉 civil/5sIvl/adj.有礼貌的

  注释:

  1. German shepherd:德国牧羊犬

  2. Clifton:克利夫顿:美国新泽西州东北部一城市,位于帕特森附近

  3. file a complaint:写信控诉

  4. lodge a complaint against sb.with the police:向警方对某人提出控诉

  5. ...laws that address whining and barking:针对动物嘶鸣和吠声的法律

  6. unconstitutionally vague:因含糊不清而违背宪法精神

  7. attend to:注意,留心

  练习:

  1. What’s the reaction of Mrs.Czamecki when she was annoyed by the barking of her neighbor’s dog?

  A) She went to her neighbor’s door to complain about it.

  B) She wrote to the local government and suggested that a law should be made to prohibit the dogs from barking.

  C) She lodged a complaint against the dog with the municipality.

  D) She became so upset and telephoned the police.

  2. In the city of Clifton,A legislative bill that addresses whining and barking was introduced by:

  A) David Axelrod

  B) Frank C.Fusco

  C) Matthew T.Priore

  D) Eric M.Zwerling

  3. Which of the following statements is true according to the passage?

  A) Mrs.Czarnecki’s complaint made the city officials decide to introduce the general noise ordinance.

  B) Clifton is the first city in New Jersey that seeks to silence noisy dogs.

  C) The general noise ordinance in Clifton is contradictory to the Constitution so that it was changed in 1998.

  D) At present,Clifton residents who complain about the noisy dogs can not employ a lawyer to prosecute the case in municipal court.

  4. Which of the following statements about the proposed ordinance is true?

  A) Clifton City Council finally passed it on Tuesday,August 8.

  B) Under the ordinance,whenever a dog barks over 30 minutes in an hour,its master will get fined.

  C) All the residents in Clifton hope that the ordinance can be reinforced as soon as possible because it is a quality of life issue.

  D) People who complain about the disturbance by noisy dogs do not need to prosecute the case in municipal court themselves according to the proposed ordinance.

  5. Which of the following statements is Mr.Zwerling’s own appreciation of the barking problem?

  A) The ordinance is not tough enough since it allows a dog bark for 30 minutes.

  B) The problem can only be solved ifpeople are civil enough to each other.

  C) Financial punishment is the best way to ban dogs from barking.

  D) The city should try its best to resolve the matter through mediation.

  第二篇

  Language learning begins with listening. Children are greatly different in the amount of listening they do before they start speaking, and later starters are often long listeners .Most children will “obey” spoken instructions some time before they can speak, though the word “obey” is hardly accurate as a description of the eager and delighted cooperation usually shown by the child .Before they can speak, many children will also ask questions by gesture and by making questioning noises.

  Any attempt to study the development from the noises babies make to their first spoken words leads to considerable difficulties. It is agreed that they enjoy making noises, and that during the first few months one or two noises sort themselves as particularly expressive as delight, pain, friendliness, and so on. But since these can’t be said to show the baby’s intention to communicate ,they can hardly be regarded as early forms of language. It is agreed, too, that from about three months they play with sounds for enjoyment, and that by six months they are able to add new words to their store. This self-imitation(模仿)leads on to deliberate(有意的)imitation of sounds made or words spoken to them by other people. The problem then arises as to the point at which one can say that these imitations can be considered as speech.

  It is a problem we need to get out teeth into. The meaning of a word depends on what a particular person means by it in a particular situation and it is clear that what a child means by a word will change as he gains more experience of the world .Thus the use at seven months of “mama” as a greeting for his mother cannot be dismissed as a meaningless sound simply because he also uses it at other times for his father, his dog, or anything else he likes. Playful and meaningless imitation of what other people say continues after the child has begun to speak for himself, I doubt, however whether anything is gained when parents take advantage of this ability in an attempt to teach new sounds .

  1. Before children start speaking________.

  A .they need equal amount of listening

  B. they need different amounts of listening

  C. they are all eager to cooperate with the adults by obeying spoken instructions

  D. they can’t understand and obey the adult’s oral instructions

  2. Children who start speaking late ________.

  A. may have problems with their listening

  B. probably do not hear enough language spoken around them

  C. usually pay close attention to what they hear

  D. often take a long time in learning to listen properly

  3. A baby’s first noises are ________.

  A. an expression of his moods and feelings

  B. an early form of language

  C. a sign that he means to tell you something

  D. an imitation of the speech of adults

  4. The problem of deciding at what point a baby’s imitations can be considered as speech________.

  A. is important because words have different meanings for different people

  B. is not especially important because the changeover takes place gradually

  C. is one that should be properly understood because the meaning of words changes with age

  D. is one that should be completely ignored(忽略)because children’s use of words is often meaningless

  5. The speaker implies________.

  A. parents can never hope to teach their children new sounds

  B. children no longer imitate people after they begin to speak

  C. children who are good at imitating learn new words more quickly

  D. even after they have learnt to speak, children still enjoy imitating

  The National Park Service

  America's national parks are like old friends. You may not see them for years at a time, but just knowing they're out there makes you feel better. Hearing the names of these famous old friends -Yosemite, Yellowstone, Grand Canyon -revives memories of visits past and promotes dreams of those still to come.

  From Acadia to Zion, 369 national parks are part of a continually evolving system. Ancient fossil beds, Revolutionary War battlefields, magnificent mountain ranges, and monuments to heroic men and women who molded this country are all a part of our National Park System (NPS). The care and preservation for future generations of these special places is entrusted to the National Park Service. Uniformed Rangers, the most visible representatives of the Service, not only offer park visitors a friendly wave, a helpful answer, or a thought-provoking history lesson, but also are skilled rescuers, firefighters, and dedicated resour吕梁癫痫病医院都有哪些ce protection professionals. The National Park Service ranks also include architects, historians, archaeologists, biologists, and a host of other experts who preserve and protect everything from George Washington's teeth to Thomas Edison's wax recording.

  Modern society has brought the National Park Service both massive challenges and enormous opportunities. Satellite and computer technologies are expanding the educational possibilities of a national park beyond its physical boundaries. Cities struggling to revive their urban cores are turning to the Park Service for expert assistance to preserve their cultural heritage, thirsty for recreational outlets are also working with the NPS to turn abandoned railroad tracks into bike and hiking trails, as well as giving unused federal property new life as recreation centers.

  To help meet these challenges and take advantage of these opportunities, the National Park Service had formed partnerships - some dating back 100 years, some only months old - with other agencies, state and local governments, corporations, American Indian tribes and Alaska Natives, Park Friends groups, cooperating associations, private organizations, community groups and individuals who share the National Park ethic.

  National Park Week 1996 is a celebration of these partnerships.

  1. Why are America's national parks like old friends?

  A) Because they are always out there.

  B) Because they are very old.

  C) Because they make people feel better.

  D) Because they are very famous.

  2. Which of the following statements is true about uniformed rangers?

  A) They take tourists to national parks.

  B) They always act as tourist guides.

  C) They help set up new national parks.

  D) They protect the National Park System.

  3. The National Park Service does all the following EXCEPT

  A) offering help to visitors

  B) molding the Nation.

  C) keeping people better informed of the National Park System.

  D) helping preserve the cultural heritage.

  4. What is this passage about?

  A) It is about the American National Parks.

  B) It is about the National Park Service.

  C) It is about the National Park Service partnerships.

  D) It is about the care and preservation of the National Parks in America.

  5. What will the paragraph following this passage most probably discuss?

  A) The pocket parks in America,

  B) The preparations made for the celebration of National Park Week 1996.

  C) The work that has been done by the partners.

  D) The preservation of national resources in America.

  补全短文

  Who (Doesn’t) Let the Dogs Bark?

  For the past year,Cornelia Czarnecki said,the barking of her neighbor’s German shepherdl has awakened her repeatedly at 4 a.m.The dog often barks for hours at a time,said Mrs.Czarnecki,a Clifton resident.

  “That dog is out there barking day and night,and we don’t know what to do anymore,”she said.

  Mrs.Czarnecki became so upset about the dog that she filed a municipal complaint3 against him under the town’s general noise ordinance.The case is set to be heard in municipal court on August 6.Complaints like the ones Mrs.Czarnecki lodged with the police4 and city officials led the Clifton City Council to draft an ordinance that could result in fines for residents whose dogs are “barking,howling,crying”or making any.other loud noises for more than 30 minutes in an hour.

  “I can’t wait,”Mrs.Czarnecki said.The council took up the ordinance for a first reading on Tuesday;a final vote is scheduled on August 8.

  “It’s a quality of life issue,”said Councilman Frank C.Fusco,who introduced the measure.Clifton is far from alone in seeking to silence noisy dogs.At least 144 of New Jersey’s municipalities have laws that address whining and barking5,according to a municipal ordinance database online at www.generalcode.com.

  In New York,at least 30 towns in Nassau and Suffolk Counties have similar laws,as do about 25 towns in Westchester County.Connecticut has a statewide law barring dogs that are a “nuisance”because of “excessive barking or other disturbance.”

  Many of the ordinances in the region are general prohibitions against excessive whining or barking.In Westchester,the City of New Rochelle ran into trouble with its law in 1997 after a resident challenged a citation.A city judge ruled that the ordinance was unconstitutionally vague6 because it did not include details about time of day and duration of barking,and the city changed the law in 1998.

  “Many of these ordinances go back to the 1800s,”said the New Rochelle corporation counsel,Bernis Shapiro.“They’re just carried forward and they don’t get changed until an issue comes up.”

  In May 2006,Hillsborough Township in Somerset County passed an ordinance to specifically address barking,but no complaints have been filed since then,said Lt.Bill Geary of the Hillsborough Police Department.Other New Jersey towns,including Bloomsbury in Hunterdon County and Manville in Somerset,considered such ordinances but withdrew them after residents complained that they would be unenforceable.

  As for those who contend that a barking dog should be a low priority,Councilman Fusco said,“If the dog was next to your house,you’d sing a different song.”

  Mr.Fusco said he was confident that the ordinance proposed in Clifton would be supported by his fellow council members.At the same time,he knows that some residents may object.

  But David Axelrod,a groomer at Furrs N Purrs on Valley Road,said he did not think the measure was tough enough.

  “Thirty minutes is extremely generous,”he said.“There is no reason why a dog should be barking that long.”

  The ordinance says barking must be sustained to be illegal,and it bans excessive barking only from 10 p.m.to 7 a.m.

  Under the ordinance,a resident complains to the City Health Department,which sends a warning note.If the barking continues,the resident takes the complaint to municipal court,where fines can start at $250.Before a court date,the city would most likely try to resolve the matter through mediation,said the city attorney,Matthew T.Priore.

  Last year about a dozen warning letters were sent to residents about their barking dogs,Clifton officials said.

  Currently,residents can complain about barking under the city’s general noise ordinance,but they have to essentially prosecute the case in municipal court themselves,Mr.Fusco said.Under the proposed ordinance,residents would appear as a witness in a case presented by the municipal prosecutor.

  “The new ordinance has some bite to it,”Mr.Fusco said.Eric M.Zwefiing,director of the Rutgers University Noise Technical Assistance Center,trains police officers on noise complaints and writes municipal noise codes.

  “One of the things I say to the officers I train is that if people were fundamentally civil to each other,we’d all be out of work,”he said.

  Mr.Zwerling,the owner of a chocolate Labrador named Bosco,said he had his own appreciation of the barking problem.

  “A dog is barking for one of two reasons--either it needs attention or it is trying to alert you to something,”he said.“In either case,you should be attending to7 it.”

  词汇:

  municipal/mju:5nIsIpl/adj.市政的 ordinance/5C:dInEns/n.法令,训令,条例

  howl/haJl/vi.嚎叫,怒吼 municipality/mju:7nIsI5pAlItI/n.市政当局,自治市

  nuisance/5nju:s[ns/n.讨厌的人或东西 excessive/Ik5sesIv/adi.过多的

  prohibition/5prRsIkjU:t/n.禁止,阻止 cou常德癫痫病要怎么治疗呢nsel/5kaunsl/n.辩护律师

  prosecute/5prCsIkju:t/vt.起诉 civil/5sIvl/adj.有礼貌的

  注释:

  1. German shepherd:德国牧羊犬

  2. Clifton:克利夫顿:美国新泽西州东北部一城市,位于帕特森附近

  3. file a complaint:写信控诉

  4. lodge a complaint against sb.with the police:向警方对某人提出控诉

  5. ...laws that address whining and barking:针对动物嘶鸣和吠声的法律

  6. unconstitutionally vague:因含糊不清而违背宪法精神

  7. attend to:注意,留心

  练习:

  1. What’s the reaction of Mrs.Czamecki when she was annoyed by the barking of her neighbor’s dog?

  A) She went to her neighbor’s door to complain about it.

  B) She wrote to the local government and suggested that a law should be made to prohibit the dogs from barking.

  C) She lodged a complaint against the dog with the municipality.

  D) She became so upset and telephoned the police.

  2. In the city of Clifton,A legislative bill that addresses whining and barking was introduced by:

  A) David Axelrod

  B) Frank C.Fusco

  C) Matthew T.Priore

  D) Eric M.Zwerling

  3. Which of the following statements is true according to the passage?

  A) Mrs.Czarnecki’s complaint made the city officials decide to introduce the general noise ordinance.

  B) Clifton is the first city in New Jersey that seeks to silence noisy dogs.

  C) The general noise ordinance in Clifton is contradictory to the Constitution so that it was changed in 1998.

  D) At present,Clifton residents who complain about the noisy dogs can not employ a lawyer to prosecute the case in municipal court.

  4. Which of the following statements about the proposed ordinance is true?

  A) Clifton City Council finally passed it on Tuesday,August 8.

  B) Under the ordinance,whenever a dog barks over 30 minutes in an hour,its master will get fined.

  C) All the residents in Clifton hope that the ordinance can be reinforced as soon as possible because it is a quality of life issue.

  D) People who complain about the disturbance by noisy dogs do not need to prosecute the case in municipal court themselves according to the proposed ordinance.

  5. Which of the following statements is Mr.Zwerling’s own appreciation of the barking problem?

  A) The ordinance is not tough enough since it allows a dog bark for 30 minutes.

  B) The problem can only be solved ifpeople are civil enough to each other.

  C) Financial punishment is the best way to ban dogs from barking.

  D) The city should try its best to resolve the matter through mediation.

  完形填空

  The Greatest Mystery Of Whales

  The whale is a warm-blooded,air-breathing animal,giving birth to its young alive,sucking them--and,like all mammals,originated on land.There are many front flippers(鳍状肢),used for steering and stability, are traces of feet.

  __________ . (51)of this.Its Immense strength is __________ . (52)into the great body of the big whales,and in fact most of a whale’s body is one gigantic muscle.The blue whale’s pulling strength has been estimated __________ . (53)400 horsepower.One specimen was reported to have towed(拖)a whaling vessel for seven hours at the __________. (54) of eight knot (节).

  An angry whale will __________ . (55) A famous example of this was the fate of Whaler Essex, __________ . (56)was sunk off the coast of South America early in the last century.More recently, steel ships have __________ . (57)their plates buckled(使弯曲)in the same way.Sperm whales(抹香鲸)were known to seize the old-time whaleboats in their jaws and crush Them.

  The greatest __________ . (58)of whales is their diving ability.The sperm whale dives to the Bottom for his __________ . (59)food,the octopus(章鱼).In that search he is known to go as far Down as 3,200 feet, where the. __________ . (60)is 1,400 pounds,to a square inch.Doing so he

  Will __________ . (61)underwater long as one hour.Two special skills are involved in this storing up enough __________. (62)(all whales are air―breathed)and tolerating the great change in pressure.Just how he does it scientists have not __________ . (63).It is believed that some of the oxygen is stored in a special __________ . (64)of blood vessels,rather than just held in the lungs.And it is believed that a special kind of oil in his head is some sort of compensating mechanism that __________ . (65)adjusts the internal pressure of his body.But since you can’t bring a live whale into the laboratory for study, no one knows just how these things work.

  51 A aspects

  B signs

  C ways

  D reasons

  52 A worked

  B divided

  C built

  D moved

  53 A at

  B in

  C of

  D with

  54A number

  B degree

  C distance

  D rate

  55A abandon

  B attack

  C leave

  D board

  56A as

  B who

  C which

  D that

  57A had

  B operated

  C Seen

  D caught

  58A interest

  B job

  C danger

  D mystery

  59A favorite

  B fast

  C new

  D sufficient

  60A depth

  B pressure

  C level

  D size

  61A set

  B become

  C remain

  D rest

  62A heat

  B energy

  C food

  D oxygen

  63A witnessed

  B determined

  C applied

  D calculated

  64A system

  B place

  C arrangement

  D equipment

  65A mentally

  B artificially

  C manually

  D automatically

  参考答案

  词汇选项

  1.D 2.C 3.B 4.A 5.B

  6.B 7.A 8.B 9.B 10.C

  11.A 12.B 13.A 14.C 15.D

  阅读判断

  参考答案:1. A 2.C 3. A 4. C 5. B 6. A 7. A

  概括大意

  参考答案: C A B E B E A C

  阅读理解

  1. C 从第三段的第一句话可知Czamech夫人在忍无可忍的情况下向市政当局控诉这一情况。

  2. B 根据文章第五段,市议会议员Frank C.Pusco提出了新的法案。

  3. D 根据文章第十七段,按照现行的法案,遇到受动物呜叫骚扰的案件时,只能由受害者本人亲自到庭指控。

  4. D 由第十七段的最后一句可推出新法案允许受害者作为证人,由律师代为控诉。

  5. B 该文第十九段提供了答案。

  答案解析:BDABD

  答案: ADBBC

  补全短文

  答案与题解:

  1. C 从第三段的第一句话可知Czamech夫人在忍无可忍的情况下向市政当局控诉这一情况。

  2. B 根据文章第五段,市议会议员Frank C.Pusco提出了新的法案。

  3. D 根据文章第十七段,按照现行的法案,遇到受动物呜叫骚扰的案件时,只能由受害者本人亲自到庭指控。

  4. D 由第十七段的最后一句可推出新法案允许受害者作为证人,由律师代为控诉。

  5. B 该文第十九段提供了答案。

  完形填空

  答案

  51.答案为B。第一段讲到鲸鱼很像陆地上的哺乳动物,最后一句举了一些例子来说明这一点。sign的意思是“符号,特征”,鲸鱼具有陆地上哺乳动物的一些特征,故选B。

  52.答案为c。something is built into…的意思是“把……装(建、插)入……”,这里指鲸鱼生有巨大的气力。其他几个选项意思上讲不通。

  53.答案为A。只能用介词at,不能用其他介词。

  54.答案为D。rate表示“速度”,从上下文来讲,选D意思才讲得通。

  55.答案为B。此题亦必须根据上下文的意思来推测选哪个词。鲸鱼被惹怒后会攻击船只,所以选B。

  56.答案为C。这里是一非限定性定语从句,关系代词作 主语,用which,故选C。

  57.答案为A。have + something+过去分词是一固定结构,此处只能选A。

  58.答案为D。本题所在句子为该段主题句,谈的是鲸鱼的潜水能力。鲸鱼的潜水能力很强,能下潜到很深的地方,科学家们不解,所以说是个迷,故选D。

  59.答案为A。虽然本题的几个选项都能与food搭配,但从上下文意思来讲,只有A正确。

  60.答案为B。空格后面的名词是pound,重量单位,据此可以判断选B,因为其他几个选项不能和pound搭配。

  61.答案为C。呆在水下要用动词remain,其他几个动词放入空格处意思讲不通。

  62.答案为D。此题也必须在读懂上下文意思的基础上才能作出判断,这里指鲸鱼聚集氧气,故选D。

  63.答案为B。上文谈到鲸鱼为什么能够在水下承受巨大的压力,科学家们还没有找到答案。选项中的deterrmine的意思是“确定”,此词放入空格处意思讲得通,其他几个选项讲不通,故选B。

  64.答案为A。special虽然和几个选项都能搭配使用,但只有选项A意思上讲得通,故A为正确答案。

  65.答案为D。此题亦需根据上下文的意思作出判断。automatically的意思是“自动地”。

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